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Selected type: Hardcover. Added to Your Shopping Cart. View on Wiley Online Library. This is a dummy description. Filling a gap in the literature, this is the first book to focus on the fabrication of functional porous materials by using ice templating and freeze drying.

1st Edition

Comprehensive in its scope, the volume covers such techniques as the fabrication of porous polymers, porous ceramics, biomimic strong composites, carbon nanostructured materials, nanomedicine, porous nanostructures by freeze drying of colloidal or nanoparticle suspensions, and porous materials by combining ice templating and other techniques. It is also undesirable to have the sample heated to an extreme elevated temperature since that affects the sample characteristics and can affect other tests other than determination of dry weight or mass.

In this embodiment, there is only one cycle. The vacuum in the sample chamber is maintained at the highest level and air leaving the sample chamber through the outlet passes directly through the cold trap throughout the entire process to the vacuum pump When a predetermined measurement of a parameter used to measure moisture in the sample is achieved, the cycle is deemed complete.


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The parameter used can be a weight determined by the load cell , or by repeatedly weighing the sample removed from the chamber , or a preset level of vacuum in the chamber or by a humidity sensor in the outlet line The lid will be equipped with a release valve not shown so that air may be allowed to enter the chamber to facilitate opening the lid and removing the sample from the sample chamber A heat pad shown in FIG. In this embodiment, there is first a cycle where the valve 50 is closed, hence the sample chamber is closed with no air entering the chamber A vacuum pump is turned on and air is pulled directly through the cold trap by the vacuum pump using the outlet line The valve 55 is closed and the bypass is not operating to allow air to directly enter the vacuum pump from the sample chamber The vacuum pump will ordinarily be operated for a predetermined period of time.

Once this time is elapsed, if the sample has not reached a predetermined level of dryness according to criteria incorporated by the controller into the process, the heated air cycle will begin. At this point, the vacuum pump may stop operating for a short period of time. Valves 50 and 55 will be opened, while valve 54 will be closed. The vacuum pump may again start to operate or may have operated continuously. Air will enter the sample chamber through the inlet in an amount determined by the valve This air will be heated by the heater Heated air will be pulled to the vacuum pump through the bypass line The temperature may be monitored using temperature sensors , , so as to not overheat the sample chamber and the sample within the chamber avoiding damaging either the sample or the components of the rapid drying invention After a predetermined time, the valves 50 and 55 will be closed, the heater will be turned off, and the initial process with the valve 54 opened will begin again.

With valve 54 open and valves 50 , 55 closed, the air exiting the sample chamber will pass through the cold trap before entering the vacuum pump When it is determined the sample has sufficiently dried, the vacuum pump will be turned off, the valve 50 will be opened, and the sample removed from the sample chamber for appropriate testing or other processes. A number of parameters can be tested to determine if the drying process of a sample within the sample chamber is complete.

One parameter could be to determine what level of vacuum was present in the sample chamber using vacuum gauge If a predetermined high level of vacuum is created in the sample chamber , this would indicate that there was no more evaporated moisture being drawn from the sample chamber by the vacuum pump There could be a continuous weight measured using a load cell placed in the sample chamber or the sample could be removed from the chamber and weighed repeatedly.


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  • As water is evaporated from the sample, the sample will lose weight proportionately to the loss of water from the sample. A humidity sensor could also be used to monitor the moisture to determine if the drying process was complete. Whatever parameter is used when the preset parameter is achieved, then the rapid drying invention 10 is stopped and the sample removed from the chamber Typically, there is some kind of controller to control the rapid drying invention The controller controls what cycle will come next in the process, will open and close the appropriate valves depending on what cycle is chosen, will operate the vacuum pump , and will use whatever sensors may be necessary to determine if the drying of the sample is complete.

    It is believed, in a commercial application, a programmable CPU computer with appropriate instrumentation and wiring will be used as a controller to control the rapid drying invention A cabinet 11 contains the functional parts of the rapid drying invention On top of the cabinet 11 is a sample chamber lid which opens to expose the sample chamber so that a sample may be placed inside the sample chamber and which, when the chamber lid is closed, will be airtight. Also shown is a cold trap lid which can be opened to expose the interior of the cold trap so that condensed moisture and other trapped materials may be removed from the cold trap Moisture may also be removed from the cold trap using the drain valve On the front of the cabinet 11 , is a controller display and controller input buttons , which can be used by an operator to operate the rapid drying invention Typically, the controller display could show vacuum within the chamber, could display time parameters, could display weights of material in the chamber, and other data of interest to a potential user.

    There is an oil drain for maintenance of the vacuum pump The sample chamber is shown in partial cut-a-way so that a load cell usually positioned at the bottom of the sample chamber may be seen. A load cell can be used for continuous monitoring of the weight of a sample secured within the sample chamber and return that data to the controller by wires The sample chamber lid is shown above the sample chamber where it may be raised or lowered as required to expose the interior of the sample chamber The vacuum pump is connected by outlet and bypass lines to the sample chamber and to the cold trap The vacuum pump is connected by wires to the controller The controller is also connected by wires to a heater and to appropriate valves 50 , 54 , In a heat cycle, as described in FIG.

    Supplementary files

    Outside air may be drawn into the heater for entry into the chamber During the cycle where no heated air is allowed to enter the sample chamber , the valve 50 will be closed and air will be drawn from the sample chamber through the outlet to the cold trap and then to the vacuum pump through the outlet A heat pad may be placed on the outside of the bottom of the sample chamber The heat pad keeps the bottom of the sample chamber heated and evaporates water that might collect on the bottom of the sample chamber from samples that may be placed inside the sample chamber The controller may use one or more of the sensors to respectively check the vacuum vacuum gauge , the humidity humidity sensor , or the weight load cell to determine if the drying of the sample is complete.

    A vacuum pump that has a capacity of 6. A heater which may be used to heat incoming air through the inlet line is a watt heater available from Omega, Inc. The valves 50 , 54 , and 55 are commercially available through Asco Valves, Inc. The cold trap may use a thermoelectric cooler available through Melcor, Inc. The load cell may use a single point load cell available through Vishay Teden Huntleigh of Covina, Calif. The heat pad may use a heating pad with an adhesive back rated at watts available through McMaster Company of Atlanta, Ga.

    The controller is constructed from available chip sets and central processing units and the construction of suitable controller from off-the-shelf parts is a matter of ordinary skill for this field. If an infrared lamp is used as a heater , a variety of commercially available lamps will serve.

    1st Edition

    Effective date : Year of fee payment : 4. An apparatus and method for quickly drying porous materials. A sealable chamber is connected to a cold trap which is connected to a vacuum pump. A sample is placed inside the sealable chamber. The vacuum pump is turned on and air is evacuated through the cold trap to the vacuum pump.

    Because evaporation may lower the temperature inside the sealable chamber, an infrared lamp may be used to heat the chamber and sample therein directly or heated air may be allowed to enter the sealable chamber in response to the vacuum created by the vacuum pump. Air may be drawn directly from the sealable chamber to the vacuum pump bypassing the cold trap. A load cell may be placed in the bottom of the sealable chamber to monitor the weight of a sample to determine if the drying process is complete. Other parameters could be used, including the degree of vacuum achieved in the chamber. The cold trap extracts moisture from the system, which eliminates the possibility of damage to the vacuum and creates an added pressure gradient for removal of air from the sealable chamber.

    Heating the chamber either by introducing heated air or by direct use of infrared heat facilitates drying of the sample and shortens the drying process. A method for drying a compacted asphalt sample, the method comprising: placing the compacted asphalt sample into an interior of a sealable chamber;. The method of claim 1 , wherein the air supplied to the interior of the chamber during the unsealed mode is heated air. The method of claim 1 , wherein during the sealed mode the evacuated air passes through a cold trap to trap moisture in the evacuated air before entering a vacuum pump.

    The method of claim 1 , the method further comprising heating the chamber with a heating pad residing under a bottom of the chamber. The method of claim 4 , wherein the step of heating the chamber with the heating pad is performed during both the sealed mode and the unsealed mode. The method of claim 4 , the method further comprising drying water droplets from the asphalt sample from a bottom inner portion of the chamber in response to the step of heating the chamber with the heating pad.

    The method of claim 1 , wherein during at least a portion of the unsealed mode air is not evacuated from the interior of the chamber. The method of claim 1 , the method further comprising opening and closing valves associated with the sealable chamber to carry out the cycling step. The method of claim 1 , further comprising determining a dry weight of the sample with a load cell positioned in the chamber.

    USA1 en. Method for post-processing a transport medium for the conveyage and atmospheric storage of semiconductor substrates, and post-processing station for implementing such a method. USB2 en. Apparatus, methods and systems for rapid drying of loose and compacted samples of material using electromagnetic energy. USA en.

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